New Education Policy 2020 was launched on Wednesday, 29th July 2020 by Union Cabinet that aims to overhaul the country’s education system. The Ministry of Human Resource Development has been renamed as Ministry of Education of India. The Information and Broadcasting Union Ministers Prakash Javadekar and Human Resource Development (HRD) Union Ministers Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank, made the announcement on the National Education Policy 2020( NEP- 2020).
What is education policy?
Education policy consists of a collection of laws and rules which is called the principles or policies to govern the operation of education systems in order to achieve development in India.
After 34 years, some major change has been brought in India’s Education system that is National Education Policy 2020 which transformational reforms in school and higher education sector in the country.
The new academic session will begin in September-October 2020 in the Indian education system. Due to the pandemic coronavirus disease (Covid-19) outbreak, the government aims to introduce the policy before the new session.
When did Education Policy start in India?/Who declared education policy in India?
Before independence, Charles Wood prepared a despatch on an educational system for India which is called Wood’s Despatch of 1854 and also named “Magna Carta of English Education in India”.
But after independence, the Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi announced the first National Policy on Education in 1968 based on Kothari commission (1964-66) which called for a “Radical Restructuring” and proposed equal educational opportunities in order to achieve national irrigation, greater cultural and economic development in India.
In 1964 Kothari commission had recommended a 6% GDP allocation on education. But India never spent 6% GDP allocation on education science Independence.
Highlights of New Education Policy 2020:
- National Education Policy 2020 reduces the Content of previous education policy. It will focus on the idea, application, problem- solving.
- The Ministry of Human Resource Development has been renamed as Ministry of Education of India.
- 6% GDP allocation in the Education sector, which earlier it was 1.7% GDP.
- More focus on vocational studies in school- level
- Preschool section in Kendriya Vidyalayas.
- School complexes to be used for adult education courses after school hours.
- Free boarding facilities in Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas.
- Every Child will come out of School adept in at least one Skill.
- Common Standards of Learning in Private Schools and in Public school.
- National Scholarship Portal for SC, ST, OBC, SEDGs students to be expanded.
- Minimum qualification for teaching – 4 years integrated B.Ed degree.
- HECI- Common regulatory body for entire higher education.
- Nutrition and health cards, regular health checkups for school students.
- HRD minister will be setup National Mission on Foundation Literacy and Numeracy.
- Various new provisions for children with disabilities.
- Bagless days encouraged.
- Three languages learned by children will be the choice of state, regions, and students.
- From class 6 (VI) onwards, Coding language to be taught.
- Divyang friendly Education Software.
- Special Education of Gifted (Good or Talented) Children.
- One large multidisciplinary institution set up near or in every district by 2030.
- No Rigid Separation between Arts & Sciences, between Curricular and activities, between Vocational and Academic streams.
- The medium of instruction in the educational field until at least Grade 5, will be the local or in regional language.
- 10+2 to be replaced by new Pedagogical and curricular structure 5+3+3+4.
- Universalization from Early Childhood Care Education (ECCE) to Secondary Education by 2030.
- Multiple entries and exit options in Undergraduate degree courses.
- Multiple entries and exit program.
- Early childhood care and education curriculum (ECCEC) to be carried out by MHRD, WCD, HFW, tribal affairs.
- Best universities will set up campuses in other countries.
- International Students Office setup at each institution that hosting foreign students.
- Setup Academic Bank to store credits.
- All higher education institutes and IITs to become multidisciplinary institutions.
- No hard separation of streams for students.
- Experiential learning in all stages.
- Preparatory Balavatika for children below the age of 5 with an ECCE qualified teacher.
- Basic literacy and Numeracy for children age between 6 to 9 years.
- Technology-based education option for adult learning through apps, TV channels etc.
- National Testing Agency (NTA) offers a common entrance exam for Admission for admissions to universities across the country.
- 360-degree holistic report card for students.
- The academic examination can be conducted twice a year, Importance of board exam to be reduced.
- NCERT will develop National Curricular and pedagogical framework.
- National Research Foundation (NRF) to be established.
- National Committee for the integration of vocation Education -LokVidya
- Attaining Foundational Learning & Numeracy Skills through Nation by 2025
- 100% GER in Pre-School to Secondary Level by 2030.
- Bring Back 2 Cr Out of School Children.
- Teachers to be prepared for assessment reforms by 2023.
- Inclusive & Equitable Education System by 2030.
- Setup Gender Inclusion Fund.
- Vocational integration from class 6 onwards.
- NCC wings in secondary and higher secondary schools under the Ministry of Defence.
- Setup the National assessment center– PARAKH.
- National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST)
- Book Promotion Policy and Digital Libraries.
Use of Technology by NEP 2020:
- Use of Technology in
- Education Planning.
- Teaching, Learning & Assessment.
- Administration & Management.
- Increasing Access for Disadvantaged Groups.
- Create and use Divyang Friendly Education Software.
- e-Content in Regional Languages.
- Use of Virtual Labs.
- Create a National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) .
- Digitally Equipping in Schools, Teachers, and Students.
National Education Policy 2020 in Details
10+2 to be replaced by 5+3+3+4 Pedagogical Structure (Details):
According to New Education Policy 2020 10+2 educational system to be replaced by 5+3+3+4 Pedagogical Structure means four structures that are Foundational Stage(5), Preparatory Stage(3), Middle Stage (3), and Secondary Stage (4).
The new structure now proposes dividing the same structure into cognitive developmental stages of the child’s are early childhood, school years, and secondary stage.
The 5+3+3+4 structure are:
Foundational Stage (5):
- The foundational stage has been suggested for the ages of 3 to 8 years.
- The multi-level play activity-based learning would include 3 years at Anganwadi, pre-school, or as commonly called playschools and the kindergarten classes catering to ages 3 to 6.
- The grades 1 and 2 or classes 1 and 2 for students of ages 6 to 8 would also be added, keeping the focus on the development of language skills and teaching by the play-based and activity-based curriculum.
Preparatory Stage (3):
- This is for ages 8 to 11 or classes 3 to 5.
- The focus would shift to play, discovery, and activity-based and interaction classroom learning. The focus until this stage would remain on the development of language and numeracy skills, in accordance with the cognitive development of a child. The medium of instruction till Grade 5 would be home language or mother tongue or local language.
- Three languages would be taught to all students and states would decide which ones.
Middle Stage (3):
- It includes the classes of 6 to 8.
- The new structure aims at transforming the pedagogy from the existing system to more experiential learning in the sciences, mathematics, arts, social sciences, and humanities. The focus would be on critical learning objectives and not on rote learning.
Secondary Stage (4):
- This includes classes 9 to 12 or the secondary and the higher secondary.
- The changes suggested at this stage include a multidisciplinary study where students would be able to pick and choose any set of subjects from the available structure.
- The focus would be on greater critical thinking and flexibility, allowing the child to pick subjects as per their interests even technical and arts.
National Education Policy 2020/NEP 2020 in Details
School or school complexes to be used for adult education courses after school hours:
- Use of schools or school complexes beyond school hours for adult education and public library spaces for adult education courses which will be ICT-equipped when possible and for other community engagement and enrichment activities.
More focus on vocational studies in school- level
- Every child from class 6 to 8 learn at least one vocational studies like crafts, carpentry, electric work, metalwork, gardening, pottery making, etc. as decided by States and local communities and exposed to several more.
- At least 50% of learners through the school and higher education system shall have exposure to vocational education By 2025.
- A 10-day bagless period sometime during Grades 6-8 to intern with local vocational experts such as carpenters, gardeners, potters, artists, etc.
- Similar internship opportunities to learn vocational subjects to students throughout Grades 6-12, including holiday periods.
- Vocational courses through online mode will also be made available.
NIOS to develop high-quality modules for Indian Sign Language:
- National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) will develop high-quality modules to teach Indian Sign Language and to teach other basic subjects using Indian Sign Language.
Pre-school section in Kendriya Vidyalayas:
- At least one year of early childhood care and education will be added to Kendriya Vidyalayas and other primary schools around the nation.
NCC wings in secondary and higher secondary schools under Ministry of Defence:
- State Governments may encourage opening National Cadet Corps (NCC )wings in their secondary and higher secondary schools, including those located in tribal-dominated areas Under the aegis of the Ministry of Defence.
Free boarding facilities in Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas:
- Free boarding facilities in Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas particularly for students from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds.
Dedicated unit for digital and online learning:
- Digital and online learning will be created in both school and higher education. A comprehensive set of recommendations for promoting online education in the education system through apps, TV channels, Internet etc.
National Scholarship Portal for SC, ST, OBC, SEDGs students to be expanded:
- Made Scholarship money for the merit of students belonging to SC, ST, OBC, and other SEDGs.
- The National Scholarship Portal will be expanded to support, ,easy to track the progress of students receiving scholarships.
- Private HEIs will be encouraged to offer larger numbers of free ships and scholarships to their students.
Minimum qualification for teaching – 4 year integrated B.Ed degree:
- The minimum qualification for teaching will be a 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree by 2030.
- Stringent action will be taken against substandard stand-alone Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs).
HECI-,Common regulatory body for entire higher education:
- According to New Education Policy 2020 Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will be set up as a single overarching umbrella body for entire higher education, excluding medical and legal education.
- HECI to have four independent bodies. These are National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC) for regulation, General Education Council (GEC ) for standard-setting, Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) for funding, and National Accreditation Council( NAC) for accreditation.
Various new provisions for children with disabilities:
- Disabilities Children fully participate in the regular schooling process from the foundational stage to higher education, with support of educators with cross-disability training, resource centers, accommodations, assistive devices, appropriate technology-based tools, and other support mechanisms tailored to suit their needs.
- Every state/district will be encouraged to establish “Bal Bhavans” as a special daytime boarding school, to participate in art-related, career-related, and play-related activities.
- Free school infrastructure can be used as Samajik Chetna Kendras.
6% GDP allocation on the Education sector:
- In New Education Policy 2020, 6% GDP allocation on the Education sector, which earlier it was 1.7% GDP in the new education Policy.
- In 1964 Kothari commission had recommended a 6% GDP allocation on education. But India never spent 6% GDP allocation on education science Independence.
Bagless days encouraged:
- Bagless days means no study with books will be encouraged throughout the year for various types of enrichment activities involving arts, quizzes, sports, and vocational crafts.
Three languages learned by children will be the choice of state, regions and students:
- The three-language learned by children will be the choices of States, regions, and of the students. At least two of the three languages are native to India.
The medium of instruction will be in the local or regional language:
- The medium of instruction in the educational field until at least Grade 5, will be the local or in regional language. But it preferably till Grade 8 and beyond classes will be the mother tongue or local language or regional language.
Indian Sign Language to be standardised across the country:
- Indian Sign Language (ISL) will be standardized across the country, and National and State curriculum materials developed, for use by students with hearing impairment.
No hard separation of streams for students:
- Students will be given increased flexibility and choice of subjects to study particularly in the secondary school including subjects in physical education, sciences, the arts and crafts, academic streams and vocational skills
- Subjects such as physical education, arts and crafts, and vocational skills, in addition to science, humanities, and mathematics, will be incorporated throughout the school curriculum.
Content will focus on the idea, application, problem- solving:
- The mandated content will focus on key concepts, ideas, applications, and problem-solving.
- Teaching and learning will be conducted in a more interactive manner.
Curriculum content to be reduced:
- Curriculum content will be reduced in each subject to its core essentials, and make space for critical thinking and more holistic, inquiry-based, discovery-based, discussion-based, and analysis-based learning.
Nutrition and health cards, regular health check-ups for school students:
- The nutrition and health including the mental health of children will be checked under healthy meals and regular health check-ups and health
ECCEC to be carried out by MHRD, WCD, HFW, tribal affairs:
- The planning and implementation of early childhood care and education curriculum (ECCEC) will be carried out jointly by the Ministries of Human and Resource Development (HRD), Women and Child Development (WCD), Health and Family Welfare (HFW), and Tribal Affairs.
Preparatory class Balavatika for children below the age of 5 years:
- Prior to the age of 5, every child will move to a “Preparatory Class” or “Balavatika” before Class 1 with an ECCE-qualified teacher.
Tech-based option for adult learning through apps, TV channels, etc:
- Quality technology-based options for adult learning such as apps, online courses or modules, satellite-based TV channels, online books, and ICT-equipped libraries and Adult Education Centres, etc. will be developed.
Variable models for board exams: annual, semester, modular exams:-
- Boards of university or school develop variable models of Board Exams such as an annual, semester, modular Board Exams to offering all subjects beginning with mathematics.
- Two parts exams objective type and descriptive type.
NTA to offer common entrance exam:
- The National Testing Agency (NTA) will offer a high-quality common entrance test, as well as specialized common subject exams in the sciences, humanities, languages, arts, and vocational subjects, at least twice every year for university entrance exams.
360-degree holistic report card for students:
- Students will get a 360-degree holistic report card, which will not only inform about the marks obtained by them in subjects but also their skills and other important points.
NEP 2020:-Class 6 Onwards Coding to be taught:
- Students of class 6 and onwards will be taught coding language in schools.
National Curricular and pedagogical framework to be developed by NCERT:
- A National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (NCPFECCE) for children up to the age of 8 years will be developed by NCERT.
Academic Bank to store credits:
- An Academic Bank of Credit (ABC) shall be established which would digitally store the academic credits earned.
Undergraduate degree courses to have multiple exit options:
- With multiple exit options, the undergraduate degree courses will be of either a 3 or 4-year duration. A certificate course after completing 1 year in a discipline including vocational and professional areas or a diploma after 2 years of study, or a Bachelor’s degree after a 3-year programme. The 4-year multidisciplinary Bachelor’s programme, however, shall be the preferred option.
IITs to become a multidisciplinary institution:
- Even engineering institutions, such as IITs, will move towards more holistic and multidisciplinary education with more arts and humanities. Students of arts and humanities will aim to learn more science.
One large multidisciplinary institution in every district by 2030:
- Setting up at least one large multidisciplinary institution in or near every district by the year 2030.
All higher education institutions to become multidisciplinary institutions:
- All higher education institutions (HEIs) shall aim to become multidisciplinary institutions by 2040. Each of which will aim to have 3,000 or more students
National Research Foundation (NRF) to be established:
- A National Research Foundation (NRF) will be established. The overarching goal of the NRF will be to enable a culture of research to permeate through universities. The NRF will be governed, independently of the government, by a rotating Board of Governors consisting of the very best researchers and innovators across fields.
National Committee” Lok Vidya” for the integration of vocational Education:
- “Lok Vidya” National Committee for vocational knowledge developed in India for access to students.
- The education ministry would constitute a National Committee for the Integration of Vocational Education (NCIVE)
International Students Office at each institution hosting foreign students:
- In order to promote India as a global study destination providing premium education at affordable costs. An International Students Office at each institution hosting foreign students will be set up through New Education Policy 2020.
Due to New Education Policy 2020 in India launched it overhaul the country’s education system which transformational reforms in school and higher education sector in the country also many major changes in our education system in order to achieve development in India during pandemic COVID-19. The Ministry of Human Resource Development has been renamed as Ministry of Education of India.
Thank you for Reading..
Q.What is education policy?
Ans-Education policy consists of a collection of laws and rules which is called the principles or policies to govern the operation of education systems in order to achieve development in India.
Q.Who declared education policy in India?
Ans-Before independence Charles Wood prepared a despatch on an educational system for India which is called Wood’s Despatch of 1854 and also named “Magna Carta of English Education in India”. After independence, the Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi announced the first National Policy on Education in 1968 based on Kothari commission (1964-66)
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