List of all Inventions and discoveries PDF Download

Dear Readers, In this Article I provide All List of Important Inventions and Discoveries like Inventions and Discoveries in Science, in Biology and Medical science, in Physics, in Chemistry, etc with invention year, inventors and inventors country.

There are many numbers of Inventions and Discoveries in  Science and Technology, but here we provide an important list of Inventions and Discoveries which are only based on competitive examination and also for study purpose which help to Aspirants for Railway JE, NTPC, SSC(CGL, MultiTasking), State PSU and all competitive exams. It is an important Science topic for competitive examination.

Other important Science topics for competitive examination are:

140+ List of Measuring Instruments and Their Uses

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410+ List of Chemical Names and formulas: All common Formulas  

List of Important Inventions and Discoveries for Competitive Exams

List of Inventions and Discoveries in Science

Invention Year Inventor Country
AC motor,


transformer, vacuum tube amplifier, Tesla coil,

Nikola Tesla 1880 USA
Adding Machine Blaise Pascal 1642 France
Adhesive tape Richard G. Drew 1923 USA
Aeroplane  Orville & Wilbur Wright 1903 USA
Air Brake George Westinghouse 1872 American
Air Conditioner Willis Carrier 1902 USA
Air Pump Otto Von Guericke 1650 Germany
Airplane (jet engine) Ohain 1939 Germany
Airship (Non rigid) Henri Giffard 1852 France
Airship (rigid) G. Ferdinand Von Zeppelin 1858 Germany
Anemometer  Leon Battista Alberti 1450 Italian
Animation Emile Reynaud 1892 France
Arc Lamp C. F. Brush 1879 Ohio
Atom Bomb Julius Robert Oppenheimer 1945 USA
Automatic Calculator Wilhelm Schickard 1623 Germany
Automatic gearbox Hermann Fottinger 1985 Germany
Automobile Gottlieb Daimler 1886 Germany
Automobiles using gasoline Karl Benz 1886 Germany
Bakelite H. Backcland 1907 Belgium/US
Ball Point Pen John J Loud 1888 USA
Balloon(Hot air) Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier 1783 France
Balloon(Rubber) Michael Faraday 1824 British
Band Aid Earle Dickson 1920 USA
Barbed Wire Joseph F. Glidden 1873 US
Barometer Evangelista Torricelli 1644 Italy
Battery(Electric) Alessandro Volta 1800 Italy
Bicycle Tyres John Boyd Dunlop 1888 Scotland Britain
Bicycle Kirkpatrick Macmillan 1839 Britain
Bifocal Lens Benjamin Franklin 1780 USA
Binomial Nomenclature Carl Linnaeus 1785 Swedish
Bleaching powder Tennant 1798 Britain
Bomb Edward Tellerm 1952 America/Hungeri
Braille Louis Braille 1829 France
Bullet Claude Minie 1849 France
Bunsen burner R  Willhelm von Bunsen 1855 Germany
Burglar Alarm Edwin T. Holmes 1851 USA
Cadmium Friedrich Stromeyer 1817 Germany
Calculating machine Blaise Pascal 1642 French
Camera (KodaK) Walker Eastman 1888 USA
Car (petrol)  Karl Benz 1888 Germany
Car (Steam)  Nicolas Cugnot 1769 France
Car Radio William Lear & Elmer Wavering 1929 US
Carburetor Gottlieb Daimler 1876 Germany
Cash Register James Ritty 1879 USA
Cassette (Videotape) Sony 1969 Japan
Cellophane I.E. Brandenberger 1900 Switzerland
Celluloid Alexander Parkes 1861 Britain
Cement(Portland) Joseph Aspdin 1824 Britain
Centigrade Scale Anders Celsius 1742 Sweden
Chemotherapy Paul Ehrlich 1940 German
Child Development Jean Piaget 1936 Swiss
Chlorine Karl Wilhelm Scheele 1774 Sweden
Cinema Nicolas &Jean Lumiere 1895 France
Cinematography Thomas Alva Edison 1880 American
Circulation of blood William Harvey 1628 England
Clock(Mechanical) Hsing and Ling Tsan 1725 China
Clock(Pendulum) Christian Huygens 1656 Netherlands
Compact disc player Sony, Philips 1979 Japan, Netherlands
Compact disc RCA 1972 USA
Computer (laptop) Sinclair 1987 Britain
Computer (Mini) Digital Corp 1960 USA
Cosmic Rays  R.A.Millikan 1910 America
Crescograph Jagadish Chandra Bose 1920 India
Crystal Dynamics  C.V.Raman 1921 India
Dental Plate Anthony A.Plantson 1817 USA
Deuterium (Heavy Water) H.C.Urey 1933 America
Diesel Engine Rudolf Diesel 1895 Germany
Disc Brake Dr. F. Lanchester 1902 England
Dynamical theory of Heat Lord Kelvin 1848 British
Dynamite Alfred B. Nobel 1867 Sweden
Dynamo Michael Faraday 1831 USA
Dynamo(Electrical) Hypolite pixii 1832 France
Electric Battery Alessandro Volta 1800 Italian
Electric computer Dr Alan M Turing 1824 Britain
Electric Fan Wheeler 1882 USA
Electric Generator Michael Faraday 1831 UK
Electric Guitar Adolph Rickenbacker 1931 America /Swiss
Electric Iron Henry.W. Seeley 1882 U.S.A
Electric Lamp Thomas Alva Edison 1879 USA
Electric motor (AC) NikolaTesla 1888 USA
Electric motor (DC) Zenobe gramme 1873 Belgium
Electric stove/cooker William S. Hadaway 1896 USA
Electric washing machine Alva J Fisher 1906 USA
Electromagnet William Sturgeon 1824 Britain
Electromagnetic Induction Michael Faraday 1831 UK
Electromagnetic theory of light & electromagnetic waves, electrical frequencies (Hz) Heinrich Rudolph Hertz 1880 Germany
Electromagnet William Sturgeon 1824 Britain
Electron J J Thomson 1897 Britain
Electronic Calculator IBM 1954 USA
Electroplating Luigi Brugnatelli 1805 Italy
Electroscope Jean Nollet 1748 France
Elevator Elisha G. Otis 1852 USA
Evolution theory Charles Darwin 1858 England
Facsimile machine Alexander Bain 1843 Britain
Fibre optics Kepany 1955 Britain
Film (Moving outline) Louis   Prince 1885 France
Film (Musical) Warner Bros 1923 USA
Film (Talking ) J Engl,J Mussole & H Vogt 1922 Germany
Film sound Dr. Le de Forest 1923 U.S.A
Fluorine Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan 1886 France
Fountain Pen Lewis Edson Waterman 1884 USA
Galvanometer Andre Marie Ampere 1834 France
Generator Piciontti 1860 Italy
Glider Sir George Calyey 1853 England
Gramophone Thomas Edison 1878 USA
Gravity & Reflecting telescope Isaac Newton 1668 England
Guillotin Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin 1790 France
Gyrocompass Elmer A. Sperry 1908 USA
Helicopter  Etienne Oehmichen 1924 France
Hot Air Balloon Josef & Etienne Montgolfier 1783 France
Hovercraft Christopher Cockerell 1959 England
Intelligence testing Simon Binet 1905 France
Jet engine Sir Frank Whittle 1937 Britain
Laser Theodore Maiman 1960 USA
Launderette  J F Cantrell 1934 USA
Lift (Mechanical) Elisha G Otis 1852 USA
Light Bulb Heinrich Goebel 1854 Germany
Lightning Conductor Benjamin Franklin 1752 USA
Locomotive Richard Trevithick 1804 England
Logarithms, Napier Bones & decimal point John Napier 1590 Scotland
Loudspeaker Horace Short 1900 Britain
Machine gun Richard Gatling 1918 Britain
Machine Gun Richard Gaffing 1861 USA
Magnetic recoding tape Fritz Pfleumer 1928 Germany
Microphone Alexander Graham Bell 1876 USA
Microscope (Elect.) Ruska Knoll 1931 Germany
Microscope(Electron) Vladimir Kosme Sworykin 1939 Russia
Microscope(Comp.) Zacharis Janssen 1590 Netherlands
Microwave Oven Percy Spencer 1947 USA
Milling machine & cotton gin Eli Whitney 1793 USA
Motor car, Petrol Karl Benz 1885 Germany
Motor cycle  G Dimler 1885 Germany
Motor Scooter Greville Bradshaw 1919 England
Motorcycle Edward Butler 1848 England
Moving projector  Thomas Edison 1893 USA
North Pole Robert Peary 1909 American
Optical fibre Narinder Kapany 1955 Germany
Ozone Christian Schonbein 1839 Germany
Pacemaker Dr. Paul Zoll 1952 USA
Parachute Jean Pierre Blanchard 1785 France
Pendulum Clock Christian Huygens 1657 Netherlands
Phonograph Thomas Edison 1877 USA
Photoelectric cell Julius Elster, Hens F Geitel 1893 Germany
Photography (on film) John Carbutt 1888 USA
Photography (on metal) Joseph N Niepce 1826 France
Photography (on paper) W. H. Fox Talbot 1835 Britain
Piano Bartolomeo Cristofori 1709 Italy
Pistol , revolver Colt 1836 USA
Pocket Watch Peter Henlein 1510 Germany
Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg 1440 Germany
Radar Dr. Albert H. Taylor & Leo C. Young 1922 USA
Radio telegraphy Dr Mohlon Loomis 1864 USA
Radio telegraphy (Trans Atlantic) G Marconi 1901    Italy
Radiocarbon dating Libby 1947 USA         
Radio Guglielmo Marconi 1894 Italy
Razor (Safety) King C Gillette 1895 USA
Razor(Electric) Col Jacob  Schick 1931 USA
Refrigerator James Harrison, Alexander Catlin 1850 Australia
Revolver Samuel Colt 1835 USA
Richter Scale Charles Richter 1935 USA
Rocket Engine Robert H. Goddard 1926 USA
Rubber (Latex foam) Dunlop Rubber Co 1928 Britain
Rubber (Tyres) Thomas Hancock 1846 Britain            
Rubber (vulcanized) Charles Goodyear 1841 USA
Rubber (Waterproof) Charles Macintosh 1823 Britan
Safety Lamp Sir Humphry Davy 1816 England
Safety Match J.E. Lundstrom 1855 Sweden
Safety Pin William Hunt 1849 USA
Saxophone Adolphe Sax 1846 Belgium
Sewing Machine Elias Howe 1846 USA
Ship (Steam) J.C Perier 1775 France
Ship (Turbine) Charles Parsons 1894 Britain
Silicones F.S Kipping 1904 England
Small Pox Vaccine Edward Jenner 1796 England
Soft Contact lenses Otto Wichterle 1961 Czech
Solar System Nicolaus Copernicus 1540 Poland
South Pole Roald  Amundson 1912 Norway
Specific Gravity Archimedes 250BC Greek
Steam Boat John Fitch 1786 USA
Steam engine (Condenser) James Watt 1765 Britain
Steam engine (Piston) Thomas Newcomen 1712 Britain
Steam Engine Thomas Savery 1698 Britain
Steam Powered Airship Henri Giffard 1852 France  
Steel(Stainless) Harry Brearley 1913 Britain
Stethoscope Rene Laennec 1819 France
Submarine David Bushnell 1776 USA
Super computer JH Van Tassel 1976 USA
Synthesizer Dr. Robert Arthur Moog 1964 USA
Tank Sir Emest D Swington 1914 Britain
Tape recorder Fessenden Poulsen 1899 Denmark
Telegraph code Samuel Morse 1837 USA
Telegraph M Lammond 1787 France
Telephone (Imperfect) Antonio Meucci 1849 Italy
Telephone (Perfected) Alexander Graham Bell 1876 USA        
Telephone (Cellular) Bell Labs 1947  USA
Telescope Hans Lippershey 1608 Netherlands
Television (Electronic) PT Farnsworth            1927 USA
Television (Mechanical) John Logie Baird 1926 Britain
Television(Colour) John Logie Baird 1928 Britain
Thermometer Galileo Gallei 1593 Italy
Thermos Flasks  James Dewar 1892 Scotland
Time Recorder Harlow Bundy 1890 USA
Tractor John Froelich 1892 America
Tractor (Caterpillar) Benjamin Holt 1900 USA
Transformer  Michael Faraday 1831 Britain
Transformer (Induction coil) William Stanley .Jr 1842 US
Transistor radio Sony 1955 Japan
Transistors John Bardeen, William Shockley & Walter Brattain 1948 USA
Tungsten Juan José Elhuyar Lubize & Fausto de Elhuyar 1783 Spain
Typewriter Peter Mitterhofer 1864 Austria
Vaccination Edward Jenner 1796 England
Vacuum cleaner ( Elec.) Spangler 1907 USA
Vacuum Cleaner Ives McGuffey 1869 USA
Valve. Radio Sir J.A Fleming 1904 Britain
Video tape Charles Ginsberg 1956 USA
Vulcanised Rubber Charles Goodyear      1839 American
Washing Soda  Lablanc 1790 American
Watch (Self Winding) Abraham Louis Breguet 1791 France
Watch Bartholomew Manfredi 1462 Italy
Waterproof Rubber Charles Macintosh 1823 Glasgow
Welder (Electric Welding) Elisha Thompson 1877 US
Windshield wipersMary Anderson 1903 USA
Wireless (Telegrapy) G Marconi 1896 Italy
Xerox Machine Chester Carlson 1928 USA
Xray Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen 1895 Germany
zerox machine  Chester Carlson 1938 America
Zip fastener Whitcomb . L. Judson 1893 America
Zipper B. F. Goodrich 1923 US

Important Inventions and Inventors in Biology PDF


Invention/Discovery Name of the Inventor Year of Invention
Anesthesia William Thomas Green Morton. 1846



Anti- pregnancy pills Goodwin Pincus 1960 
Antiseptic Surgery Dr.Joseph Lister 1867
Aspirin Dr.Felix Hoffmann 1899
ATP Karl Lohmann. 1929
Aureomycin Benjamin 1948
Automated DNA Sequencer   Lloyd M.Smith. 1986
Bacteria Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek 1665
Bacteria of leprosy Gerhard Hansen 1873
Bacteria of typhoid Joseph Eberth 1880
BCG Vaccine     Albert Calmette & Camille Guerin. 1921
Biology of Cancer Robert A.Weinberge 1982
Blood Circulation William Harvey 1928
Blood groups (ABO group) Karl Landsteiner 1927
Calcium Humphry Davy. 1808
Cancer  Percivall Pott 1775
Cell  Robert Hooke. 1665
Cell Theory Schleiden and Schwann 1839
Cell Division Hugo von Mohl 1835
Cell Division by meiosis Oskar Hertwig  1876
Cell Nuclues Robert Brown. 1831
Chloroform James Simpson 1847
Chloromycetin Paul Burkholder 1947
Chloroplast Schimper. 1880
Chloroquine (drug) Hans Andersag 1934
Cholera Bacteria Robert Koch 1883
Cholera Vaccine  Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine 1892
Chromosomes Hofmeister 1848
DDT Paul Hermann Muller 1939
Diphtheria Bacteria Edwin  Klebs and Loffler 1983-84
DNA Helical structure Watson & Crick. 1952
Electrocardiogram(ECG) Willem Einthoven 1895
electroencephalography (EEG) Hans Berger 1929
Enzyme  Anselme Payen 1883
Father Modern Ecology Eugene Odum 1953
Father of Ecology Alexander Von Humboldt 1946
Father of Evolution Charles Darwin 1858
Father of Genetics  Gregor Mendel 1865
First test tube baby Robert Edward & Patrick  Steptoe 1978
Three  Kingdom classification Ernst Haeckel 1860
Five  Kingdom classification Robert H. Whittaker. 1969
Hormone E. H. Starling & W. M. Bayliss secretin 1902
Genetic Code Hargobind  Kharana 1960
Heart Transplantation Christiaan Barnard 1967
Hepatitis B vaccine Pablo Valenzuela 1986
Hepatitis B virus Dr. Blumberg 1965
HIV Luc Montagnier 1983
Homeopath Samuel Hahnemann 1796
Hydrophobia vaccination(Rabies) Louis Pasteur 1885
Smallpox vaccine Edward Jenner 1796
Insulin Sir Frederick Banting and Best 1923
Kidney Dialysis   Willem Johan Kolff 1943
LSD(Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) Albert Hofmann 1938
Malaria parasite Ronald Ross 1897
Microbes Antoine  van Leeuwenhoek & Rober Hook. 1665
Microbes Of malaria Charles Laveran 1880
Open Heart Surgery    C.Walton Lillehei 1952
Penicillin Alexander Fleming 1928
Plague Vaccine Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine 1897
Polio Drop Albert Sabin. 1961
Polio Vaccine Jones E. Salk 1955
Rabis & Anthrax Vaccination Louis Pasteur 1885
Reserpine (drug) Jal Vakil 1952
Rh- factor Landsteiner and Wiener 1940
RNA Watson and Arthur 1961
RNA Structure Alexander Rich 1956
Virology(Science of Virus) Dmitri Ivanovsky and Bejernick 1892
Small Fox Edward Jenner (Father of vaccine) 1796
Spiral Structure of protein Lines Pauling 1951
Stethoscope Rene Laennec 1816
Streptomycin Selman Waksman 1944
Structure of DNA Watson and Crick 1950
TB Bacteria Robert Koch 1882
Terramycin Finlay and Hobby 1949
Treatment of beriberi Christiaan Eijkman 1897
Treatment of diabetes Joseph Mering andoskar Minkowski 1889
Treatment of kala azar Upendra Nath Brahmachari 1922
Treatment of Syphilis Paul Ehrlich 1910
Vaccination Edward Jenner 1796
Virus Dmitri Ivanovsky & Martinus Beijerinck 1892
Vitamin A Mc Collum and Marguerite Davis 1913
Vitamin B Mecollum and Casimir Funk 1916
Vitamin B1 Christian Eijkman 1897
Vitamin B2 D. T. Smith, E. G. Hendrick 1926
Vitamin B6 Paul Gyorgy 1934
Vitamin C Szent Gyorgyi 1920
Vitamin D Edward Mellanby 1920
Vitamin E Herbert McLean Evans and S. Bishop 1922
Vitamin k  Henrik Dam 1929
Vitamin Folic acid Lucy Wills 1928
Vitamin Niacin Conrad Elvehjem 1937
Vitamin      Casimir Funk & Hopkins 1912
X-ray         Voilhesm  Rontgen. 1895


List of Inventions and Discoveries in Chemistry

Invention/Discovery Name of Inventor Year of Invention Country
Atom Democritus 400BC Danish 
Atomic Number Henry Mosley 1913 British
Atomic Physics Ernest Rutherford 1911 British
Atomic Structure Neils Bohr and Rutherford 1913 Denish & British
Atom/ Atomic Theory John Dalton 1808 British
Bismuth Claude Geoffroy 1753 France
Chemical Structure August Kekule 1958 German
Chloroform E. Soberran 1831 France
Coulomb Charles Augustin de Coulomb 1779 French
Electromagnetic Induction Michael Faraday 1831 British
Electron J.J. Thomson 1897 British
Helium William Ramsay 1868 Britain
Hydrogen bomb Edward Teller 1952 USA
Hydrogen Henry Cavendish 1766 England
Law of Motion Isaac Newton 1687 British
Liquid Oxygen Karol Olszewski and Zygmunt Wroblewski 1883 Polish
Neon Gas WilliamRamsay, Morris Travers 1898  British
Neon Lamp Georges Claude 1810 France
Neutron bomb Samuel Cohen 1958 USA
Neutron James Chadwick 1932 British
Nuclear Fission Otto Hahn, Bohr and Fermi 1938 German /Danish/America
Nuclear Reactor Enrico Fermi 1942 Italy
Nylon Dr. Wallace H. Carothers 1935 USA
Ohm’s Law Georg Simon Ohm 1827 German
Organic Chemistry Friedrich Wohler 1828 German
Oxygen Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Joseph Priestley 1775 France
Periodic Table of Elements Dmitri Mendeleev 1869 Russian
Photoelectric Effect Heinrich Rudolf Hertz 1905 German
Photon Albert Einstein 1905 German/USA
Proton Ernest Rutherford 1919 British/Newzealand
Quantum theory Max Planck 1900 German
Radio activity of Uranium Henry Becquerel 1896 France
Radioactive Dating(Isotope of carbon) Willard Libby 1946 America
Radioactivity Henri Becquerel 1896 France
Radium Marie & Pierre Curie 1898 France
Rayon Sir Jaseph swan 1883 Britain
Relativity Albert Einstein 1905 German/USA
Thermionic Emission Thomas Edison 1880 America
Uranium Fission Szilard Fermi 1942 USA (Atomic reactor)

All list of Inventions and discoveries Download PDF


Q.Who discovered the electron?

Ans- J J Thomson discovered electron in 1897.

Q.Who invented neutron?

Ans- James Chadwick invented neutron in 1932

Q.Who discovered the structure of RNA?

Ans-Alexander Rich discovered the structure of RNA.

Q.When was the binomial nomenclature invented?

Ans- In 1785 the binomial nomenclature was invented by Carl Linnaeus.

Q.Who discovered binomial nomenclature?

Ans- Carl Linnaeus discovered binomial nomenclature in 1785

Q.Who invented the first calculating machine?

Ans- Blaise Pascal invented the first calculating machine 1642.

Q.Who invented the first thermos flask?

Ans- In 1892 James Dewar invented the first thermos flask.

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