Constitutional Amendments: Under article 368 of the constitution, parliament has the power of amending the constitution. Parliament can amend any part of the Constitution including the Fundamental Rights, but without affecting the ‘Basic Features’ of the Constitution. There is all 104 List of Amendments of the Constitution of India amended till now (2020) by the Indian Constitution.
There are 3 methods to amend the Constitution
1.Method of simple majority-
The construction can be amended by simple majority bin matters relating to citizenship, abolishing or creating second chambers in the States creation of states or alteration of boundaries of existing states, etc.
2.By special majority-
The constructional amendment must be passed by each house by a majority of the total membership of that house and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that house present and voting.
3. In the third method-
In this method apart from passing through a special majority in parliament, it should also be passed by half the state legislature
The Important Constitutional Amendments are-
The First (1st) Amendment ,1951:
- In June 1951 this act was passed. To overcome certain practical difficulties related to Fundamental Rights.
- It made provision for special treatment of educationally and socially backward classes
- Added Ninth Schedule to the Constitution to protect the land reform.
The Third ( 3rd ) Amendment ,1954:
- It substituted entry 33 of List III (Concurrent List) of the Seventh Schedule to make it correspond to Article 369.
- It empowered the parliament to control the production ,supply, and distribution of the food stuffs, cattle fodder, raw cotton, cotton seed in public
The Fifth ( 5th) Amendment, 1955:
- Empowered the president to fix the time limit for the state legislature to express their view on the proposed central legislation affecting the areas,boundries and the name of the states.
The Sixth (6th) Amendment ,1956:
- Include new subject in the Union list i.e. taxes on the sale and purchase of goods in the course of inter stare trade and commerce.
The Seventh (7th ) Amendment, 1956:
- It Was necessitated on account of reorganisation of states on a linguistic basis and changed First and Fourth Schedules.
- Provided for the establishment of a common high court for 2 more states.
The Eighth ( 8th) Amendment, 1960:
- It extended Special provision for reservation of seats for SCs, STs and Anglo-Indians in Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for a period of 10 Years from 1960 to 1970.
The Ninth (9th) Amendment , 1960:
- Transferred certain territories of India to Pakistan following September 1958, Indo-Pak Agreement.
The Tenth (10th) Amendment , 1961:
- Incorporated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in Indian Union.
The Eleventh ( 11th ) Amendment ,1961:
- Changed the procedure of election of the vice-president by providing for an electoral college instead of a joint meeting of the two houses of the parliament.
The Twelfth ( 12th) Amendment, 1962:
- Incorporated the territories of Goa, Daman and Diu in Indian Union and for this first schedule of the constitution was amended.
The Thirteenth ( 13th) Amendment ,1962:
- Created Nagaland as a State of the Union of India.
The Fourteenth (14th) Amendment, 1962:
- Incorporated former French Territory of Puducherry in Indian Union.
List of Amendments of the Constitution of India
The Fifteenth (15th) Amendment, 1963:
- Retirement age of High Court Judge increased from 60 to 62 yrs .
- It provides for the appointment of retired judges of the High Courts as acting judges of the same court and for the procedure for determining the age of Supreme Court and high court of Judges.
The Sixteenth (16th) Amendment , 1963:
- It conferred power on the state to impose further restriction on the rights to freedom of speech and expression, to assemble peaceably and to form association in the interest of sovereignty and integrity of the India.
- It included sovereignty and integrity of the in the forms of oaths and affirmations to be subscribed by contestant to the legislature, members of legislatures, ministers, judges and CAG of India.
The Seventeenth (17th) Amendment, 1964:
- It prohibited the acquisition of land under personal cultivation unless the market value of the land is paid as compensation.
- It also added more act in the Ninth schedule.
The Eighteenth (18th) Amendment, 1966:
- The Act made it clear that the power of Parliament to form a new state also includes a power to form a new state or union territory by uniting a part of a state or a union territory to another state or Union Territory.
- It was made to facilitate reorganisation of Punjab into Punjab and Haryana and also created the UT of Chandigarh.
The Nineteenth (19th) Amendment, 1967:
- Abolished the system of Election Tribunal and vested the power to hear election petition in the High Court.
Twentieth (20th) Amendment, 1966 :
- Validated certain appointments of district judges in the UP which were declared void by the Supreme Court.
The Twenty-First (21st) Amendment ,1967:
- Included Sindhi as the 15th regional language in the Eighth Schedule.
The Twenty-Second (22nd) Amendment,1969:
- Created a sub-state of Meghalaya with in Assam.
The Twenty –Third (23rd) Amendment ,1970:
- Extended the reservation of seats for SC/ST and nomination of Anglo-Indians for a further period of 10 years (up to 1980).
The Twenty-Fourth (24th )Amendment, 1971:
- It affirmed the power of Parliament to amend any part of the constitution including fundamental rights.
- It made it compulsory for the president to give his assent to a Constitutional Amendment Bill.
The Twenty-Fifth (25th)Amendment, 1971:
- It curtailed the fundamental right to property. It provided that any law made to give effect to the Directive Principles of State Policy in Article 39 (b) or (c) cannot be challenged on the ground of violation of the rights guaranteed by Article 14, 19 and 31.
The Twenty-Sixth(26th) Amendment, 1971:
- It abolished the title and special privileges of the former rulers of princely states.
The Twenty-Seventh (27th ) Amendment ,1971:
- Establishment of the States of Manipur and Tripura as state and Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh as UnionTerritories.
The Twenty-eighth (28th )Amendment, 1972:
- It abolished certain special provisions for ICS officers and empowered the Parliament to determine their service conditions.
The Twenty-ninth (29th) Amendment, 1972:
- It included two Kerala acts on land reforms in the Ninth Schedule.
Amendments of the Constitution: The Thirty-First (31st) Amendment ,1973:
- Increased elective strength of Lok Sabha from 525 to 545.
- Upper limit of representatives of state became 525 from 500.
The Thirty-Second (32nd) Amendment, 1974:
- It made special provisions to satisfy the aspirations of the people of the Telengana region of Andhra Pradesh.
The Thirty-Third (33rd )Amendment Act, 1974:
- It provided that the resignation of the members of Parliament and the state legislature may be accepted by the Speaker/Chairman only if he is satisfied that the resignation is voluntary or genuine.
The Thirty-fourth (34th) Amendment ,1974:
- Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
The Thirty-fifth (35th) Amendment ,1975:
- Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India.
The Thirty-Sixth (36th) Amendment, 1975:
- Made Sikkim a state of the lndian Union.
Thirty-Seventh (37th) Amendment, 1975:
- Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly.
Thirty-Eighth (38th) Amendment, 1975:
- Enhances the powers of President and Governors to declare different proclamations of national emergency on different grounds simultaneously.
Thirty-Ninth (39th) Amendment, 1975:
- Placed beyond challenge in the court ,the election to parliament of a person holding the office of prime minister , president, and Speaker.
- They are to be decided by such authority as may be determined by the Parliament.
Fortieth (40th )Amendment, 1976:
- Empowered the Parliament to specify from time to time the limits of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and the maritime zones of India.
Forty-First(41st) Amendment, 1976:
- Raised the retirement age of members of State Public Service Commission and Joint Public Service Commission from 60 to 62 years.
List of Amendments of the Constitution of India
The Forty-Second (42nd ) Amendment, 1976:
- It also called Mini Constitution.
- Provided supremacy of Parliament and gave primacy to Directive Principles over Fundamental Rights and also added 10 Fundamental Duties.
- New words-socialist, secular and integrity, were added in the Preamble.
- Added Fundamental Duties by the citizens (new Part IV A).
Forty-Third (43rd) Amendment, 1977:
- Restored the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the high courts in respect of judicial review and issue of writs.
The Forty-Fourth (44th) Amendment 1988:
- Restored the normal duration of Loka Sabha and Legislative Assemblies to 5 Years.
- Right to Property Was deleted from Part III. If limited the power of the government to proclaim internal emergency.
- Deleted the right to property from the list of Fundamental Rights and made it only a legal right.
The Forty-Fifth (45th) Amendment ,1980:
- Extend reservation for SC/ST by 10 years (up to 1990).
Forty-Sixth (46th) Amendment, 1982:
- Enabled the states to plug loopholes in the laws and realise sales tax dues.
Forty-Seventh (47th) Amendment, 1984:
- Included 14 land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
Forty-Eighth (48th) Amendment, 1984:
- Facilitated the extension of President’s rule in Punjab beyond one year without meeting the two special conditions for such extension.
Forty-Ninth (49th) Amendment, 1984:
- Gave a constitutional sanctity to the Autonomous District Council in Tripura.
Fiftieth (50th) Amendment, 1984:
- Empowered the Parliament to restrict the Fundamental Rights of persons employed in intelligence organisations and telecommunication systems set up for the armed forces or intelligence organisations.
Fifty-First (51st) Amendment, 1984:
- Provided for reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha for STs in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram as well as in the Legislative Assemblies of Meghalaya and Nagaland
The Fifty-Second ( 52nd) Amendment ,198:
- Inserted the Tenth Schedule (known as Anti-Defection Law) in the Constitution regarding provisions as disqualification on the grounds defection.
Fifty-Third (53rd ) Amendment, 1986:
- Mizoram was made a state and fixed the strength of its Assembly at a minimum of 40 members.
The Fifty-Fourth (54th) Amendment ,1986:
- Enhanced salaries of Judges of Supreme Court and High Court.
The Fifty-Fifth ( 55th) Amendment ,1986:
- Conferred statehood on Arunachal Pradesh.
The Fifty – Sixth (56th) Amendment ,1987:
- Hindi version of the Constitution of lndia was accepted for all purposes .
- The UT of Goa, Daman and Diu was divided. Goa was made as state & Daman and Diu was made UT.
Fifty-Seventh (57th) Amendment, 1987:
- Reserved seats for the STs in the legislative assemblies of the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya,Mizoram and Nagaland.
Fifty-Eighth (58th) Amendment, 1987:
- Provided for an authoritative text of the constitution in hindi language and gave the same legal sanctity to the hindi version of the constitution.
Fifty-Ninth (59th) Amendment, 1988:
- Provided for the declaration of national emergency in Punjab on the ground of internal disturbance.
The Sixtieth (60th) Amendment, 1988:
- Increased the ceiling of taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments from Rs 250 per annum to Rs 2,500 per annum.
The Sixty-First ( 61st ) Amendment, 1989:
- Reduced voting age from 21 to 18 years for Lok Sabha and Assemblies election.
Sixty-Second (62nd ) Amendment , 1989:
- Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for the further 10 years (up to 2000).
Sixty-Third (63rd )Amendment, 1989 :
- Repealed the changes introduced by the 59th Amendment Act of 1988 in relation to Punjab.
Sixty-Fourth (64th)Amendment, 1990 :
- Extension of the President’s rule in Punjab up to a total period of 3 years and 6 months.
Sixty-Fifth (65th) Amendment, 1990 :
- Provided for the establishment of a multi-member National Commission for SCs and STs in the place of a Special Officer for SCs and STs.
Sixty-Sixth (66th) Amendment, 1990 :
- Included 55 more land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
Sixty-Seventh (67th) Amendment , 1990:
- Extension of the President’s rule in Punjab up to period of 4 years.
Sixty-Eight (68th)Amendment, 1991:
- Extension of the President’s rule in Punjab up to period of 5 years.
Sixty-Ninth (69th) Amendment, 1991:
- Accorded a special status to the Union Territory of Delhi by designing it as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
Seventieth (70th) Amendment, 1992:
- It facilitates for members of Delhi and Puducherry Legislative Assemblies to paticipate in the election of the president.
Seventy-First (71st) Amendment, 1992:
- Included Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali languages in the Eight Schedule.
Seventy-Second (72nd) Amendment , 1992
- Provided for reservation of seats for the STs in the Legislative Assembly of Tripura.
The Seventy-Third ( 73rd ) Amendment 1993: (Panchayati Raj Bill )
- Provided Gram Sahab in villages, direct elections to all seats in Panchayats and
- Reservation of seats for the SC and ST and fixing of tenure of 5 years for Panchayats .
The Seventy-Forth (74th) Amendment 1993:(Nagar Palika Bill)
- Provided for Constitution of three types of municipalities.
- Reservation of seats for SC and ST, women and the backward class.
Seventy-Fifth (75th) Amendment, 1994:
- Provided for the establishment of rent tribunals for the adjudication of disputes with respect to rent, its regulation and control and tenancy issues including the rights, title and interest of landlords and tenants.
Seventy-Sixth (76th) Amendment, 1994 :
- Included the Tamil Nadu Reservation Act of 1994 which provides for 69 per cent reservation of seats in educational institutions and posts in state services.
- In 1992, the Supreme Court ruled that the total reservation should not exceed 50 percent.
Seventy-Seventh (77th) Amendment, 1995 :
- Provided for reservation in promotions in government jobs for SCs and STs.
Seventy-Eighth (78th)Amendment, 1995:
- Included 27 more land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
The Seventy-Ninth (79th) Amendment ,2000:
- Extended reservation for the SC/ST for further period of ten years up to 25th January, 2010.
The Eightieth (80th) Amendment, 2000:
- Certain Changes were made to tax distribution provided under Article 269, 270 and 272 of the Constitution.
Eighty-First (81st) Amendment, 2000 :
- Empowered the state to consider the unfilled reserved vacancies of a year as a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years. Such class of vacancies are not to be combined with the vacancies of the year in which they are being filled up to determine the ceiling of 50 per cent reservation on total number of vacancies of that year.
Eighty-Second (82nd) Amendment, 2000 :
- Provided the SCs and STs relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation, for reservation in matters of promotion to the public services of the Centre and the states.
Eighty-Third (83rd) Amendment, 2000 :
- Provided that no reservation in Panchayats need be made for SCs in Arunachal Pradesh.
The Eighty-Fourth ( 84th) Amendment, 2002:
- The number of representatives in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies to freeze to current levels for the next 25th years (till 2026).
The Eighty-Fifth (85th) Amendment , 2002:
- Provided for consequential seniority in case of promotion by virtue of the rule of reservation for government servants belonging to SCs/STs.
Constitutional Amendments:The Eighty-Sixth (86th) Amendment , 2002:
- This act deals with the insertion of a new Article 21A after Article 21.
- The new Article 21A deals with Right to Education “the state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children from the age of 6 to 14 years in such a manner as the state may, by law determine”.
Eighty-Seventh (87th) Amendment, 2003:
- Provided for the readjustment and rationalisation of territorial constituencies in the states on the basis of the population figures of 2001 census and not 1991 census as provided earlier by the 84th Amendment Act of 2001.
The Eighty-Eighth (88th) Amendment ,2003:
- Provides for the insertion of a new Article 268A.
- Service tax levied by union and collected and appropriated by the union and the states.
- Amendment of Article 270, Amendment of Seventh Schedule.
The Eighty-Ninth (89th) Amendment ,2003:
- Provides for the Amendment of Article 338. There shall be a National Commission for the SCs/STs.
Ninetieth (90th) Amendment, 2003 :
- Provided for maintaining the erstwhile representation of the Scheduled Tribes and non- Scheduled Tribes in the Assam legislative assembly from the Bodo land Territorial Areas District.
The Ninety-First (91st) Amendment, 2003:
- Amended the anti-defection laws and provided for Amendment of Article 75.
- The total number of Ministers, including the Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the House of the People.
The Ninety-Second (92nd) Amendment ,2003:
- Provided for the Amendment of Eighth Schedule by adding four new regional languages (Bodo, Maithili, Santhali and Dogri) thus, extending the list to 22 languages.
The Ninety-Third (93rd ) Amendment 2005: (came into effect on 20th January, 2006)
- Provided for special provision, by law, for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the SCs/STs in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions.
The Ninety-Forth ( 94th) Amendment ,2006:
- To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
The Ninety-Fifth( 95th) Amendment, 2010:
- Extended reservation for the SC/ST for further period of ten years up to 25th January,2020.
List of Constitutional Amendments
The Ninety-Sixth (96th) Amendment, 2011:
- Substituted ‘Odia’ for “Oriya” in the 8th schedule of the constitution.
The Ninety-Seventh (97th) Amendment ,2012:
- Provided for the Co-operative societies in Part IX B i.e co-operative society of the Constitution of India.
- It also amended Article 19 (1) (c) and inserted Article 43B.
The Ninety-Eight (98th) Amendment Act,2013:
- Provided for special provisions for the Hyderabad-Kamataka region of the state of Karnataka.
Ninety-Ninth (99th) Amendment, 2014:
- It provided for establishment of National judicial commission. It was repealed the supreme court in 2015.
Hundredth (100th) Amendment ,2015:
- It operationalized the Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh.
Constitutional Amendments: 101st Amendment, 2016 :
- It contains the provisions for the Goods and Services Tax (GST).
- Articles 246A, 269A and 279A were added in the constitution. The amendment made changes in the 7th schedule of the constitution.
102nd Amendment, 2018 :
- It provides for constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes(NCBC).
Constitutional Amendments: 103rd Amendment, 2019 :
- It changed two fundamental rights, Article 15 and 16.
- It provides for 10% reservation for the economically weaker sections(EWS) from the upper castes of society in all government jobs and in educational college seats .
104th Amendment ,2020:
- To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty years.
- Removed the reserved seats for the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.
FAQ of Constitutional Amendments:-
Q. By which constitutional amendments, the voting age reduced from 21 years to 18 years?
Ans- By 61st amendments, the voting age reduced from 21 to 18 years.
Q. When was the first amendment to the constitution done?
Ans-In 1951 ,first amendment amends.
Q. How many amendments of the constitution?
Ans- Till now there are 104 amendments in the constitution.
Q. What is 104th Amendment Act?
Ans- 104th Amendment extends the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from 7 to 8 years and Removed the reserved seats for the Anglo-Indian community.
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